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New derivatives of chitosan, including water soluble, and their practical applications

Country of Origin: Armenia
Reference Number: TOAM20181106001
Publication Date: 9 November 2018


An Armenian research institute  active in the field of waste management  has developed technology for production of  chitosan on the basis of foodstuff  waste, by synthesizing  new soluble derivatives of chitosan. The  final product can be  applied in many fields such as medicine, restoration, packaging of foodstuffs. The institute is looking for  partners to finalise the technology under a financial agreement, research or technical cooperation agreement.


Nowadays there are hundreds of tons of food waste issued annually. The waste generated during the production of food and after the use creates serious problems for the environment.  An Armenian research institute dealing with waste management issues has developed a solution to use the foodstuff waste for synthesis and characterization of derivatives of chitosan  and their further practical application. 
The main raw materials for production of chitin (Cn), formula 1 (see attachment) is waste coming from sea production processing such as crabs, shrimps, squids, crustaceans. The company is planning to use the crustaceans Astacus leptodactylus production wastes (Lake Sevan, Armenia) for extraction of Cn, namely its armors.
The technology of extraction Cn from armors of crustaceans includes the following stages: cleaning of armors of pectins and washing with water, drying and a grinding to a powdery state, demineralization by HCl solution (~ 3.5% of HCl), deproteinization with aq. NaOH (~ 5%), decolorization and then drying. Deacetylation of Cn provided under inert atmosphere, with aq. NaOH (50%; w/v, 1:14) and NaBH4 (w/w, 10:1) at 117–120◦C. The product is washed with distilled H2O until neutral reaction (pH 7), then rinsed with ethyl alcohol, acetone and final product of chitosan (Cs), formula 2 (see attachment) , is dried in vacuum. The above described technology of extraction Cn is well-known and has been put to practice already for a long time. It is known that important characteristics for Cs and its derivatives is the average molecular weight (AMW) and the degree of deacetylation (DDA). These characteristics, in particular, have significant effect on viscosity and solubility of Cs products and gain special importance at their specific and target application.
Taken into account above description, institute plans to produce Cs with DDA up to 95%.
Recently the interest towards Cs with low molecular weight (LMW) about 10÷50kDa has considerably increased. Scientists have investigated influence of glutaraldehyde (GLA) - CH2(CH2CHO)2 as the cross-linking agent on characteristics of Cs membranes.
The new derivative of Cs synthesized by the research team in charge with the pending vinyl groups, will have the same crosslinking functions, as GLA. The scientific group is planning to synthesize the Cs with LMW using the linear particle accelerator of electrons in the possession of the research institute. It is planed to use an electron beam with energy about 40 MeV for radiation of samples to doses of 10 – 100 kGy.
The solubility of Cs and its derivatives in various solvents often limits their practical application. In this sense water-soluble derivatives of Cs are of great interest. The organization is going to synthesize well-known water soluble carboxymethylated Cs ( Reaction 1,see attachment), and also new carboxymethylated Cs (Reaction 2, see attachment).
Including new water soluble carboxymethylated Cs, (Reaction 3, see attachment). The produced water soluble products will be applied for consolidation and restoration of an ancient manuscripts, in medicine, particularly for treatment of burns, for storage and protection of fruit against microorganisms, vegetable products etc.
The institute is looking for R&D partners for financial agreement, research cooperation agreement or technical cooperation agreement in order to have research and technical support for:

- definition of molecular-weight characteristics (mean values and distributions of molecular weights) of the obtained samples
- definition of the sorption and antibacterial characteristics of the samples, depending on their average molecular weights.
- drawing up the optimum technological scheme for production, including well-thought-out calculations of forms and volumes of the necessary chemical and auxiliary equipment.

Advantages and Innovations

The main advantage of the technology is the  knowledge-intensive production , including the new derivatives of chitosan synthesized by the institute , which will be applied to the solution of specific scientific and applied objectives.

Establishment of a unique production in South Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan and possibly, Turkey) of chitin (Cn) and, after deacetylation of Cs from waste formed by production of the crustaceans Astacus leptodactylus.
Production which will be the most effective for the solution of their specific goals, in particular, taking into account such important characteristics for Cs and its derivatives as average molecular weight (AMW), degree of deacetylation (DDA), the structural and thermal features.

Synthesizes of absolutely new (including water soluble) derivatives of Cs and development of techniques for their specific application.

Cs and its some derivatives are biocompatible, biodegradable and non-toxic, they exhibit antioxidant properties and have been widely used in biomedicine. The research will investigate antifungal, antibacterial characteristics of again synthesized Cs and its new derivatives. The antifungal (Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium herbarum, Geothrichum candidum) antibacterial and antimicrobial characteristics of the new derivatives of Cs will be studied and classified.

The complex capability of the new derivative Cs synthesized by the institute , the various metals and their connections will be investigated. For the purpose of definition of new chitosan-complexes, effective application in ecology, agriculture, radiation medicine (also anti-tumor) will be investigated.

Stage Of Development

Under development/lab tested

Requested partner

R&D partners interested in research of applied aspects of the offered products and wiling to provide support to finalize the technology by:
- definition of molecular-weight characteristics of the obtained samples;
- definition of the sorption and antibacterial characteristics of the samples, depending on their average molecular weights.
- drawing up the optimum technological scheme for production, including well-thought-out calculations of forms and volumes of the necessary chemical and auxiliary equipment.

Cooperation offer ist closed for requests